intelligent! Crows not only use, but make, tools. They solve problems. They remember faces, over years, that have frightened them. Oh, and they're effective planners, too.

PBS's video A Murder of Crows is a fascinating account of the experiments scientists have conducted in the United States, Japan, Australia, and elsewhere proving these claims. Watch crows use moving cars to crack their nuts open for them, work through multi-step obstacles to get food, and teach their fellow friends where danger lies.

In Pennsylvania, indeed throughout the lower 48 U.S. states, the American Crow is a year-round resident. Given their adaptability, it is easier to list where they avoid living - deserts and unbroken expanses of forest. Their diet is likewise diverse: seeds and grains, nuts, fruits, insects, earthworms, mice, snails, reptiles, aquatic animals such as clams and turtles, and garbage.